Electric Vehicle Grid Impacts Model

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E3 developed the Electric Vehicle Grid Impacts model to provide custom estimates of the economic costs and benefits associated with EV adoption, programs, and managed charging initiatives. We have modeled more than 30 electrified vehicle segments, from passenger cars to heavy-duty and off-road vehicles, showing benefits for the utility, ratepayer, vehicle owner, and society. The model includes an optimization module that simulates how vehicle and fleet owners could shift charging in response to tariff design changes or smart-charging measures.

  • We used the model to analyze distribution grid impacts, costs, and benefits of EV adoption for the California Electric Transportation Coalition, a consortium of utilities and automakers.
  • For a group of five Northwest utilities, we projected distribution grid impacts, costs, and benefits of EV adoption and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of managed charging.
  • Our study for the San Diego Gas & Electric Company assessed the impact of a novel dynamic tariff designed to promote charging during periods of excess solar energy production.


PEV charging profile under alternative rate designs

E3 used the EV Grid Impacts Model to show how SDG&E’s proposed dynamic vehicle grid integration rate could encourage PEV charging during the mid-day hours when renewable overgeneration in the spring and fall.


E3’s EV Grid Impacts model projects the cost and benefits of EV adoption and utility programs from multiple perspectives, including societal (shown here), participant, ratepayer, and regional.

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