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ACM: Avoided Cost Model

The E3 Avoided Cost Model forecasts long-term marginal costs to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of distributed energy resources such as energy efficiency, distributed generation, storage, and demand response.

IDSM: Integrated Demand Side Management Model

The E3 IDSM model assesses the market potential and economics of distributed energy resources (DER) technologies for electric utilities.


E3’s PATHWAYS model for deep decarbonization scenarios is a tool for GHG mitigation planning that evaluates long-term GHG abatement scenarios and performs cost analysis.

RECAP: Renewable Energy Capacity Planning Model

The E3 Renewable Energy Capacity Planning model (RECAP) assesses generation resource adequacy for a power system based on loss-of-load probability …

Electric Vehicle Grid Impacts Model

The E3 Electric Vehicle Grid Impacts model provides custom estimates of the economic costs and benefits associated with EV adoption, programs, and managed charging initiatives.

REFLEX: Renewable Energy Flexibility Model

REFLEX is a production simulation model designed to identify system integration and operational flexibility needs under high renewables penetration.

RESOLVE: Renewable Energy Solutions Model

RESOLVE is a resource investment model that identifies optimal long-term generation and transmission investments in an electric system, subject to …

RESTORE: Energy Storage Dispatch Model

RESTORE evaluates the costs and benefits of energy storage in the transition to a low-carbon, high-renewables grid, co-optimizing the dispatch …

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