Transportation electrification

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Transportation electrification is a key strategy in long-term economy-wide decarbonization. As regions set ambitious climate goals and more consumers adopt electric vehicles, clients like utilities, policymakers, and planners look to understand the potential impacts on the electricity grid and how to best integrate this unprecedented increase in electric load. Our broad and deep experience in the energy industry has uniquely positioned us to address key questions at the intersection of the transportation and electricity sectors.

E3 offers more than a decade of experience in considering the benefits and impacts of the transportation electrification transition. Our work has helped clients along the spectrum of transportation electrification planning: from regions starting to consider electrification as a decarbonization strategy, to utilities designing electric vehicle rates and programs and planning for grid impacts, and automakers and investors seeking to understand the value of vehicle-grid integration.

Our transportation electrification services include:

  • Transportation electrification roadmaps and strategy
  • Charging load profile modeling and optimization
  • Utility program design and regulatory support
  • Electric vehicle rate design
  • Cost-benefit analysis
  • EV charging geospatial forecasting
  • Distribution impacts assessment
  • Optimal charger siting analysis
  • Fleet electrification strategy
  • Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) value and market analysis
  • Vehicle-to-grid (V2G), vehicle-to-home (V2H), vehicle-to-building (V2B), and vehicle-to-
    everything (V2X) value assessment
  • Emerging business model evaluation

Transportation electrification projects

New York City Long-Term Energy Plan | New York City Mayor’s Office of Climate and Environmental Justice, 2022-2023

E3 led a team completing an inclusive, year-long study to identify the policies and programs needed to achieve the New York City’s decarbonization goals. E3’s analysis involved both examining policies and programs to meet the city’s long-term goals as well as providing specific recommendations for actions to be taken during the current administration. The study included eight research branches focused on the performance and cost of heat pumps in new buildings; the affordability of electrification retrofits in rent-regulated housing; the opportunities for electric school bus managed charging and vehicle-to-grid; the potential for in-city wind energy; a screening of public lands for new clean energy development; an assessment of the electric grid readiness for increasing heat pump and EV charging loads; and an evaluation of how bulk energy storage could reduce reliance on in-city fossil generation. Based on E3’s study, New York City published PowerUp NYC, the city’s first Long-Term Energy Plan, which includes 29 clean energy initiatives focused on the city’s energy grid, its buildings, and its transportation sector. Many aspects of the PowerUp NYC, from research topic selection to recommendations, were developed in collaboration with the public, and with the public’s interest at the forefront of the decision-making process. The recommendations of the LTEP are aligned with long-term energy and equity policy mandates from both the city and state and revolve around the needs of NYC residents.

Read the detailed project description.

Electrification of Transportation Rate Design and Infrastructure Applications | Hawaiian Electric Company, 2020-2021

E3 supported the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) on four transportation electrification filings. First, E3 and its subcontractors Anser Advisory and Black & Veatch designed a program for HECO to build the make-ready infrastructure for electric buses to support electrification of transportation for transit, tourism, and other bus operators. Second, E3 designed two new electric vehicle charging rates, EV-J and EV-P, for commercial electric vehicle charging sites. E3 developed a rate design calculator and performed cost-benefit assessments to evaluate different rate designs and propose final rates that will support low-cost public EV charging in Hawaii. Third, E3 and its subcontractor Anser Advisory supported HECO in developing its Charge Ready Hawaii pilot program to deploy make-ready charging infrastructure for commercial and multi-unit dwelling locations. Finally, E3 and its subcontractors Anser Advisory and Atlas Public Policy supported HECO in developing a proposal to expand its public DC fast charging (DCFC) infrastructure pilot to build out 150 DCFC ports and 150 dual-port Level 2 charging stations across its service territory. These programs – three of which have been approved by the Hawaii Public Utilities Commission with the fourth project (DCFC program expansion) under review in 2022 – build on HECO’s Electrification of Transportation Roadmap and allow for HECO to support its customers in electrifying their vehicles and fleets.

EV Program Regulatory Support | AEP Ohio, 2017

To support AEP Ohio’s program application to the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO), in which the company sought to install 1300 electric vehicle charging stations over four years, E3 performed a cost-benefit analysis of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption in the company’s service territory. To do this, E3 developed a statewide PEV adoption forecast and estimated costs of PEVs and charging stations as well as the electric grid costs of serving PEV charging loads. E3 also quantified the benefits of PEV adoption, which primarily result from reduced gasoline and vehicle maintenance costs. E3’s analysis — which found net benefits of $1,600 per vehicle in Ohio, and utility ratepayer benefits of $1,470 per vehicle — provided credible, independent support for AEP Ohio witness testimony.

Regional EV Impact Analysis | Pacific Northwest Six-Utility Study, 2015-17

After analyzing the costs and benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) for Seattle City Light (SCL), E3 worked with SCL and five additional utilities to complete a Northwest regional analysis covering Washington and Oregon that assessed costs, benefits, opportunities and challenges for the region as a whole and for each utility. E3 investigated the value of PEV adoption from ratepayer and societal perspectives, quantified forecasted load impacts and greenhouse gas emissions, and assessed the value of managed charging in each utility’s service territory, modeling light-duty vehicles as well as taxis and car share vehicles, parcel trucks, buses, and forklifts. Overall, the study found that the region would benefit from transportation electrification through lower overall spending on energy and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. E3’s final report, completed in March 2017, contained extensive documentation for each utility.

Rate Structures for Electrified Transit | California Transit Association, 2018

E3 utilized its deep rate design experience and robust vehicle electrification modeling capabilities to help the California Transit Association (CTA) develop electricity rate structures to promote widespread transit electrification. E3 worked with CTA member agencies to develop key data sets for charging profiles and candidate rate designs. This involved gathering extensive data to create accurate charging profiles for public buses, which differ in terms of charging locations (on route vs. at depot), charging times, and route lengths. E3’s modeling also incorporated forecasted changes in charging technologies as well as current and future bus technology configurations. E3 then developed a wide range of potential rate structures with various time-of-use energy charges and demand charge structures and levels, each of which was designed to be revenue-neutral so that any design could be implemented as an option for the relevant customer class. This project quantified the importance of rate structure selection in delivering value for both “smart” and un-managed charging  and informed the ongoing discussion among utilities, regulators, and transit agencies. CTA represents more than 200 member organizations, including all of California’s largest urban transit operators and dozens of agencies in suburban and rural areas.

Electrification of Transportation (EoT) Strategic Roadmap | Hawaiian Electric Companies, 2017-18

E3 provided the Hawaiian Electric Companies significant support in developing an industry-leading “Electrification of Transportation Strategic Roadmap,” filed in 2018, which outlines key utility initiatives and partnerships designed to realize economic and environmental benefits associated with EVs. In formulating and drafting the Roadmap, E3 developed a rigorous, data-driven approach to identify high-impact utility actions to promote EV adoption, minimize costs and grid impacts, and capture maximum benefits for utility customers. The Roadmap quantifies the significant benefit that EVs are predicted to provide to ratepayers and the state’s economy between now and 2045: up to $1,800 and $2,700 per vehicle, respectively, if more vehicles charge during periods of solar abundance. EVs will also support Hawaii’s ambitious goal of 100% renewable energy by 2045, provide significant CO2 reductions and local air quality benefits, and substantially reduce reliance on imported oil. Near-term priorities include: 1) customer outreach and education; 2) partnering with third parties to build critical charging infrastructure; 3) supporting customers’ transition to electric buses; 4) aligning EV charging with grid needs; and 5) coordinating with ongoing grid modernization efforts.

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