Senior Managing Consultant
Vivian Li

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Vivian Li

Vivian Li works on clean energy projects, focusing on advancing distributed energy resource integration and helping states achieve their GHG emission goals. She is passionate about promoting sustainable energy consumption through policies and regulations rooted in strong technical analysis.

Vivian is particularly interested in resolving the central conflict of energy dependence, because even as it advances our quality of life, energy consumption is having catastrophic effects on the environment. Prior to joining E3 in 2017, she developed distribution network planning models in the U.S. and the developing world. Her master’s thesis investigated the role that distributed energy resources could play in rural electrification planning and advancing global electrification rates.

Education: MS, technology and policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; BS, chemical engineering, University of California, San Diego


Integrated Resource Plan Support | Xcel Energy Upper Midwest, 2019

As part of its 2019 Integrated Resource Plan, Xcel Energy retained E3 to conduct two independent analyses to support its IRP: (1) an economy-wide study for the state of Minnesota examining what would be needed to meet deep decarbonization goals throughout the economy (e.g. 80% reductions by 2050); and (2) a portfolio optimization and reliability analysis for Xcel’s portfolio to examine the costs of meeting the utility’s carbon reduction goals (80% reductions by 2030; 100% carbon-free by 2050).

E3’s statewide pathways study provided Xcel with a novel perspective on future electricity loads in the context of an economy-wide carbon reduction effort, showing how decarbonization measures such as building and transportation electrification could lead to significant long-term increases in load. These findings were used to inform a sensitivity analysis conducted within Xcel’s internal IRP modeling.

E3’s portfolio and reliability analyses were conducted in parallel with Xcel’s internal work to develop a forward-looking resource plan, testing the notion that an independent expert using advanced industry-standard methods would come to similar conclusions. E3 used RECAP for sophisticated loss-of-load-probability analysis and RESOLVE for optimal capacity expansion to design reliable, least-cost portfolios to meet carbon reduction goals, ultimately corroborating the findings in Xcel’s plan.


Deep Decarbonization in a High Renewables Future: Updated Results from the California PATHWAYS model | CEC, 2015–2018

This project evaluates long-term energy scenarios in California through 2050 using the California PATHWAYS model. These scenarios investigate options and costs to achieve a 40 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and an 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, relative to 1990 levels. Ten mitigation scenarios are evaluated, with each […]